Just to be on the safe side the Swiss authorities had some British 18 carat gold tested and found that it assayed at 755‰ so they introduced a new higher standard for gold watch cases that were to be exported to the UK, This is discussed below at Three heads: 18 ct.
gold The second standard of gold recognised by the 1880 Swiss Act was 14 carat.
Watch cases would most likely have been marked in Biel / Bienne because it was closer to the centres of production. Note that the Swiss/French word "contrôle" means to examine something, which is different to the meaning of the similar English language word.
This led to some confusion during the Brexit referendum about what was meant by control of/at the borders.
Contents Swiss Hallmarks Poinçons de Maître Precious Metals Act 1880 Swiss Gold Standards • Eighteen Carat Gold • Fourteen Carat Gold • Nine Carat Gold • Twelve Carat Gold Swiss Silver Standards • 0.875 Silver • 0.800 Silver Additional Silver Grades • 0.900 Silver • 0.935 Silver • 0.925 Silver Platinum The Merchandise Marks Act • Three Bears: 935 silver • Three Heads: 0.755 gold • 9 and 12 Carat Gold • "Swiss Made" Plaqué Or - Gold Plated Precious Metals Act 1933 Déposé No. Regulations were later introduced in the cantons of Neuchâtel and Schaffhausen, each having its own standards for gold and silver, its own system of testing and hallmarking, and its own unique set of marks.
9846 Other Swiss Case Marks • Swiss Federal Cross • Brevet Dem. To begin with the standards and marking were controlled by the local Guilds.
To ensure that items pass assay, the alloy used by the goldsmith will be slightly finer than the absolute minimum standard.
This is not shown by the hallmark, which records only that the item passed assay and was therefore of at least the required fineness.
British hallmarks at the time did not contain a number indicating a percentage or millesimal fineness, the mark for 18 carat gold was a crown and the number 18.These assay offices were established by law, superseding the medieval Guild system of regulation.These hallmarks were used for plate, vessels and candlesticks etc. • And Many More Helmsman Trademark Saturn EV Trademark Knight's Helmet Radiant Sun Dove with Olive Branch Standards for precious metals in Switzerland originated in Geneva in the 15th century, the first recorded regulation concerning the fineness and marking of silver was enacted by Bishop John of Brogny in the year 1424.Markham's "Handbook to Foreign Hallmarks" says that an Assay Office was established in Geneva on 22 September 1815, and one in Neuchâtel in 1839.